Thursday, April 30, 2009

hYp0TeNSi0n?

dEfiNiti0N~
Low blood pressure, or hypotension, occurs when blood pressure during and after each heartbeat is much lower than usual. This means the heart, brain, and other parts of the body do not get enough .
Blood pressure that is borderline low for one person may be normal for another. The most important factor is how the blood pressure changes from the normal condition.
Most normal blood pressures fall in the range of 90/60 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) to 130/80 mm Hg. But a significant drop, even as little as 20 mm Hg, can cause problems for some people.
tYpEs~
There are three main types of hypotension:
1)Orthostatic hypotension, including postprandial orthostatic hypotension
Orthostatic hypotension is brought on by a sudden change in body position, usually when shifting from lying down to standing. This type of hypotension usually lasts only a few seconds or minutes. If this type of hypotension occurs after eating, it is called postprandial orthostatic hypotension. This form most commonly affects older adults, those with high blood pressure, and persons with Parkinson's disease.
2)Neurally mediated hypotension (NMH)
NMH most often affects young adults and children. It occurs when a person has been standing for a long time. Children usually outgrow this type of hypotension.
3)Severe hypotension brought on by a sudden loss of blood(shock)
cAuSeS~
by drugs:
Alcohol
Anti-anxiety medications
Certain antidepressants
Diuretics
Heart medicines, including those used to treat high blood pressure and coronary heart disease
Medications used for surgery
Painkillers
others:
Advanced diabetes
Anaphylaxis (a life-threatening allergic response)
Changes in heart rhythm (arrhythmias)
Dehydration
Fainting
Heart attack
Heart failure
Shock (from severe infection, stroke, anaphylaxis, major trauma, or heart attack)
sYmpT0Ms~
Blurry vision
Confusion
Dizziness
Fainting (syncope)
Light-headedness
Sleepiness
Weakness
ExAmS & tEsts~
The health care provider will examine you and try to determine what is causing the low blood pressure. Your vital signs (temperature, pulse, rate of breathing, blood pressure) will be checked frequently. You may need to stay in the hospital for a while.
The doctor will ask questions, including:
What is your normal blood pressure?
What medications do you take?
Have you been eating and drinking normally?
Have you had any recent illness, accident, or injury?
What other symptoms do you have?
Did you faint or become less alert?
Do you feel dizzy or light-headed when standing or sitting after lying down?
The following tests may be done:
Blood cultures to check for infection
Complete blood count (CBC) and other blood tests, including blood differential
ECG
Urinalysis
X-ray of the abdomen
tReAtmEnT~
Hypotension in a healthy person that does not cause any problems usually doesn't require treatment.
If you have signs or symptoms of low blood pressure, you may need treatment. Treatment depends on the cause of your low blood pressure. Severe hypotension caused by shock is a medical emergency. You may be given blood through a needle (IV), medicines to increase blood pressure and improve heart strength, and other medicines, such as antibiotics.
If you have orthostatic hypotension caused by medicines, your doctor may change the dose or switch you to a different drug. DO NOT stop taking any medicine before talking to your doctor. Other treatments for orthostatic hypotension include increasing fluids to treat dehydration or wearing elastic hose to boost blood pressure in the lower part of the body.
Those with NMH should avoid triggers, such as standing for a long period of time. Other treatments involve drinking plenty of fluids and increasing the amount of salt in your diet.
(Ask your doctor about specific recommendations.)
In severe cases, medicines such as fludrocortisone may be prescribed
X-ray of the chest
pRogN0siS~
Low blood pressure can usually be treated with success
p0sSiBlE c0MpLicAti0N~
Shock
Injury from falls due to fainting
Falls are particularly dangerous for older adults. Fall-related injuries, such as a broken hip, can dramatically impact a person's quality of life.
Severe hypotension starves your body of oxygen, which can damage the heart, brain, and other organs. This type of hypotension can be life threatening if not immediately treated.
wHeN to c0nTacT mEdiCaL prOfesSi0naL~
When you have symptoms from a drop in blood pressure, you should immediately sit or lie down and raise your feet above heart level.
If low blood pressure causes a person to pass out (become unconscious), seek immediate medical treatment or call the local emergency number (such as 911). If the person is not breathing or has no pulse, begin CPR.
Call your doctor immediately if you have any of the following symptoms:
Black or maroon stools
Chest pain
Dizziness, lightheadedness
Fainting
Fever higher than 101 degrees
Irregular heartbeat
Shortness of breath
Also call your doctor if you have:
Burning with urination or other urinary symptoms
Cough with phlegm
Inability to eat or drink
Prolonged diarrhea or vomiting
pRevenTioN~
Avoiding alcohol
Avoiding standing for a long time (if you have NMH)
Drinking plenty of fluids
Getting up slowly after sitting or lying down
Using compression stockings to increase blood pressure in the legs
sumber:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/

3 comments:

clue said...

sah!
k.ummu amek alkohol n dadah!
ehee
(ubat n myk wangi kot)
semoga cpt smbuh yee k.ummu..

~uMMu~ said...

uiks..
huh..
akhirnyer..
ade jugak org panggil ak kakak..
hahaha..
tq2..tq ADIK ..kih3
uish,ms tu tertelan minyak atar..
pastu..
pasal tula kot..
doakn cepat sembuh!
:)

yuyu said...

haha! ummu? kak? geli KAK YU bace...eiii!